Temple of Amun
Nestled in the heart of Ancient Thebes lies a great temple that has stood the test of time. The Temple of God "Amun", located in the temple of Karnak, is a true gem of Ancient architecture and a testament to the skill and ingenuity of the Egyptian people who built it for the cult of "Amun, Mut, and Knonsu". The Great temple is a masterpiece of art from the towering columns to the intricate hieroglyphics etched into the walls, every inch of this temple exudes beauty and grandeur.
When you step through its gates, you are transported back in time to an era when the pharaohs ruled Ancient Egypt and the deities were revered. Join us in our article today as we will take you on a journey through the Temple of God "Amun" and discover the wonders that lie within its location, history, significance, religious practice and much more waiting for you.
The Location of Amun-RE Temple
This masterpiece is located in the south of Upper Egypt, on the east bank of the Nile River of Egypt. This city is far away 500 kilometers south of Cairo.
The History of the Temple of Amun
The history of building Temple of "Amun-RE" dates back to the Middle Kingdom of Ancient Egypt around (2150-1650 BC) in the Egyptian Eleventh Dynasty for the cult of the Gods (Amun, Mut, and Knonsu), during this era, the temple was a small shrine dedicated to the God "Amun" who was worshipped as a local God in the city of Thebes (The Ancient Capital city)
Later, the cult of God "Amun" grew in many cities, and the shrine was expanded and rebuilt several times due to the increase of Ancient Egyptian people who prayed for Amun and became a place for pilgrimage for around two thousand years.
During the New Kingdom of Ancient Egypt (1550-1100 BC) the Temple of "Amun" underwent a period of massive renovation and expansion. During the rule of Queen "Hatshepsut" and king "Thutmose III", great structures were added to the complex of the temple, including the famous Hypostyle Hall which is well-known of the temple, which a vast hall filled with towering columns that is considered one of the greatest architectural achievements of ancient Egypt and temples as a whole.
In the next centuries, the Temple of "Amun" continued in its significance and also its massive size. The kings "Ramses II" and "Ramses III" added new pylons to the massive temple, and the temple became a center of the economy and got a great amount of wealth flowing in from all over Egypt to support its upkeep.
In the late period of the new kingdom of Egypt, the Temple of "Amun-Re" was damaged and plundered by invading armies, and many of its treasures were looted. However, the temple remained a powerful symbol of Egyptian culture and continued to be used for religious purposes by the Ancient Egyptians.
These are the pharaoh of the eleventh dynasty who added to the temple of Amun, some of them had a great role in constructing areas or developing others.
- Intef the Elder: around 2150 BC)
- Mentuhotep I: (2134 BC)
- Intef I: (2118 BC)
- Intef II: (2118-2069 BC)
- Intef III: (2069:2061)
- Nebheoetre/ Mentuhotep II: (2061-2010 BC)
- Sankhkare/ Mentuhotep III: (2010: 1998 BC)
- Nebtawyre/ Mentuhotep IV: (1998-1991 BC)
What Are the Unique Features & Facts about the Temple Of Amun Architecture?
The great temple of "Amun-Ra" is the site of Luxor (The ancient city of Thebes in Egypt). The temple is the grandest of all Egyptian temples and also the biggest in the world. It was not built in a complete plan, but in different eras and during several centuries, finally, it is a testament to the skill, and magnificence of many Egyptian kings.
1. The Hypostyle hall, is about 54,000 square feet, 16,459 meters.
2. The temple of Amun-Ra has ten massive pylons.
3. A large ceremonial hall was built by "Thutmose III".
4. The massive temple has 134 columns.
5. The Great Hypostyle Hall, is about 337 feet by 170 feet.
6. The First Pylon of the temple is one hundred and thirteen meters, stands 43.5 meters high and wide with walls 15 meters thick.
7. The great court, is about one hundred and three meters wide by eighty-four meters deep.
8. The Second Pylon of the temple, which was built by Ramses II, is so dilapidated.
9. The left obelisk stands for a weight of 323 tons and 29.5 meters in height.
10. To the right, there is a temple of "Ramses III" whose courtyard has columns with many statues of the Egyptian pharaoh attached.
11. The roof of the central aisle is twenty-four 24 meters high.
12. The first hall of records was built by King "Tuthmosis III", you can see the two colossal statues of "Amun-RE and Goddess Amaunet".
13. To the east side, there is an area of remains of the earliest temples of the middle kingdom.
14. In The Great festival temple of "Tuthmosis III", there are stumps of two sixteen-sided columns.
15. There are two pillars in a camber in the Botanic Garden which adjoins an amazing chapel.
16. There are two temples by the seventh pylon, one temple was built by king Amenophis I, and the other was built by Tuthmosis III.
17. The Eighth Pylon was built by Queen "Hatshepsut" and is the oldest building in the complex.
18. The Sixth Pylon was built by king "Tuthmosis III", and it is the last and smallest of all pylons.
19. The third pylon was built by Amenophis III and is decorated with reliefs and inscriptions from 13 earlier temples.
20. The central court is estimated to weigh 143 tons and is 21.75 meters high.
21. There are many sphinxes on the lateral side that used to be a part of the sphinx avenue at the entrance.
22. Beyond the courtyard is the second pylon, which is the entrance to the vast hypostyle hall built by "Seti I" and his son "Ramses II".
23. The hypostyle hall of the temple, is covered with an architectural enclosure supported by rows of large columns attached. There were 5,000 statues erected in the honor of God "Amun"
24. The roof of the enormous slabs of stone is supported by 134 columns in 16 rows.
25. The central avenues are about 24 meters in height, have columns 21 meters high, and are 3.6 meters in diameter with papyrus flowers. While the side avenues are lowered with columns 13 meters high and 2.5 meters in diameter.
26. The central avenue is taller to admit light through the clerestory, which is huge windows on the sides.
27. All the columns were carved with inscriptions and reliefs in amazing colors.
28. Several major things stand out, such as the Obelisk of Queen "Hatshepsut" which is one of the largest obelisks in Egypt.
29. There is a place called "The Sancta of Sanctorum" of the temple, where the statue of "Amun" was placed.
30. If you continue on the way on your right, you will find the sacred lake which was used by priests for ritual washing and ritual navigation.
31. The first pylon is the last one built at Karnak and it was never completed.
32. The main temple of God "Amun-Ra" had two axes—one that went north/south.
33. The Wadjet Hall, The hall measures about 246 feet by 46 feet.
34. The temple is connected by an avenue of sphinxes with the temple of Luxor.
35. Before entering the temple, you will see two stone needles called "Obelisks". Obelisks were commemorative landmarks for the Egyptian pharaoh made out of one single piece of stone.
36. Behind the obelisks, there are six colossal statues.
The Religious Practice at the Temple of Amun
Religious practices in the temple of "Amun" were varied due to many numbers of Gods during this time, however, there were some practices that were central to the religious life of Ancient Egyptians.
One of the most important practices of the temple of "Amun" was the daily offering of food and drinks to the Gods. Each day, priests prepare different offerings for the Gods, including beer, bread, and meat which would be presented to the Gods.
This religious practice was believed to ensure Ancient Egyptian protection and goodness. Music and dancing were also essential practices in the temple of God "Amun". Musicians and dancers were an important factor in the temple's religious events, performing hymns and other holy music to thank the Gods.
The temple of "Amun-Re" also comprised musicians who played a range of instruments such as harps, flutes, and drums during celebrations and festivals.
In summary, religious practices in the temple of God "Amun" had an important role and great influence on the life of Ancient Egyptians, and they continue to captivate and inspire people all over the world.
The Significance of Amun Temple
The Temple of God "Amun" in Karnak is one of the most important religious attractions in Egypt, and it played an important role in the life of Egyptian people for almost 2,000 years. The temple of "Amun" was dedicated to the cult of Gods "Amun, Mut, and Knonsu" who were worshipped as the most important Gods in Egyptian religion.
In the day and age, the Temple of God "Amun" has great restoration as it is now one of the most popular tourist attractions in Egypt and one of the most famous Ancient Egyptian temples globally, and the biggest temple in the world and the largest religious attractions ever made due to its massive size and its breathtaking design continues to inspire awe and wonder, plus, its history serves as a vivid reminder of the power, pride, and majesty of ancient Egypt.
- The Political Role of the Temple of Amun
Depending on their positions in the temple, the priests have significant responsibilities. The high priest of "Amun" was one of the most influential people in Ancient Egypt, with tremendous political and religious power.
Precinct of Amun Art in Karnak
The art of building the Temple of God "Amun" in Thebes is a testament to the unbelievable skill of ancient Egyptian artisans and architects. The construction of the temple spanned several centuries, from the Middle Kingdom to the New Kingdom, and involved the work of thousands of workers, artists, and craftsmen.
One of the most striking features of the Temple of "Amun" is its giant size, as the temple complex covers an area of over 200 acres and contains dozens of individual temples, including massive pylons, halls, chapels, and courtyards. The sheer size of the temple necessitated a massive amount of work, planning, and organization to be constructed.
The inscriptions on the columns and walls will take your breath once you medicate to them. These inscriptions contain hymns and the history of Ancient Egypt.
The temple was also built with a range of different materials, including limestone and sandstone, which were mined from all over Egypt and carried to the site by canals and ramps.
One of the most prominent instances of the craftsmanship involved in creating the Temple of "Amun" is the Hypostyle Hall. The Hypostyle Hall is home to 134 towering columns, each over 60 feet tall and intricately carved and painted. The great hall is an engineering and design wonder, and the craftsmanship involved in its creation is really amazing.
The building of the Temple of "Amun" at Karnak is a spectacular achievement in ancient inventiveness and art. The expertise and workmanship involved in its creation have endured the test of time, and the temple of "Amun" is still one of the world's most outstanding specimens of ancient Egyptian art and architecture today.
In closing, the Temple of Amun is an amazing example of the architectural and artistic achievements of ancient Egypt. Today, the Temple of Amun in Karnak continues to inspire travelers from around the world, as it offers a glimpse into the artistic heritage and rich culture of ancient Egypt.
The temple of "Amun" serves as a reminder of the incredible achievements of this Ancient civilization, and it continues to inspire new generations of artists, adventurers, and scholars who seek to understand the mysteries of Ancient Egypt.
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