Edfu temple is the most impressive one among all Nile temples between Luxor and Aswan. It is located in Edfu city, which is located 60 km north of Aswan on the west bank of the Nile River in Upper Egypt. It was established during the Ptolemaic Kingdom between 237 and 57 BC. Edfu temple was the center of the cult of a triad of gods. Edfu city was known in the Greek documents as, “Apollopolis Magna”. The reason behind this was that Horus was identified by the Greeks with their god Apollo. Edfu flourished a lot in the ancient era and the most important touristic landmark in it is Edfu Temple. It dates back to the Ptolemaic period. Here are all the information need to know before visiting Edfu temple:
Edfu Temple “The Temple of Horus”
- 1. Edfu Temple History
- 2. Facts About Edfu Temple
- 3. Description of Edfu Temple
- 4. Architectural of Efu Temple
The History of Edfu Temple
The construction work of Edfu temple began about 237 B.C during the reign of Ptolemy III and it was finished during the reign of Ptolemy IV in 57 B.C. The temple’s construction and its additions took about 180 years. It consists of the Mamisi, which is the house of divine birth and it consists of an entrance, a chapel, and a court. Its walls are decorated and they show the divine birth of Horus.
It consisted of a pillared hall, two transverse halls, and a barque sanctuary surrounded by chapels. Many of the temple’s carved reliefs were razed by followers of the Christian faith, which came to dominate Egypt. Throughout the centuries, Edfu temple has been buried under the desert sands to the depth of 12 meters. The temple pylons were identified by the French expeditions in 1798. The French Egyptologist Auguste Mariette began to free the temple from the sands in 1860. Edfu temple is a great example of the Egyptian temples because of its archeological significance.
Interesting Facts About Edfu Temple
Edfu temple was built in three main phases the First Phase includes the original building, which is considered to be the nucleus of the temple. When the country was stable in the fifth year of Ptolemy VII’s reign, the doors of the temple have been installed. The Second Phase includes the decoration of the temple and among them the inscriptions. The Third Phase includes the construction of the columns hall.
The Description of Edfu Temple
Edfu temple has one of the amazing pylons among all of the Egyptian temples, which is 37m high and decorated with battle scenes, representing King Ptolemy VIII smiting his enemies before the god Horus. There is also an open courtyard that contains columns with floral capitals. It is also known as the court of offerings. There is a hypostyle hall that contains 12 columns to support the roof. At the end of this magnificent temple, there is a sanctuary that includes a niche where there is a statue of the god. This sanctuary is surrounded by 12 rooms. There are many religious scenes on the walls of the sanctuary. Some rooms were dedicated to religious purposes.
There is a Nilometer, which is considered to be the most important element of the temple as it was used to measure the water level of the Nile and a chapel, which was dedicated to goddess Nut, there are many battle sceneries over the temple walls, which gives the temple its touristic importance. The wall that is located in the northern part of the court shows the marriage of Horus and Hathor, which is celebrated twice yearly, once in Edfu temple and the other is in Dendera temple, it includes a pylon that was built by Cleopatra’s father in the first century BC. It leads into a peristyle court and then a hypostyle hall that precedes the sanctuary of Horus.
The Architectural Elements of Efu Temple
- The Pylon: It’s consists of two towers and each one of them has some rectangular niches. There are two statues represent the god Horus in front of the two towers.
- The Great Gate: It’s the main entrance of the temple that was made of cedarwood.
- The Large Courtyard: It has two rows of columns on each side. Its length is 46 meters and its width is 42 meters.
- The Hall of the Great Columns: It’s consists of 18 columns, which are arranged in rows and each row consists of 3 columns.
- The Hall of the Small Columns: It’s a small area that consists of 12 columns and has magnificent carvings and decorations.
- The First Waiting Room: It was dedicated to presenting offerings to the gods.
- The Second Waiting Room: It was dedicated to worship the gods.
- The Holy of Holies: It was only entered by the king and the priest and is considered to be the most sacred place in Edfu Temple that is surrounded by 10 rooms.
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The temperature of Egypt ranges from 37c to 14 c, Summer in Egypt is somehow hot and winter is cool and mild but sometimes it becomes cold at night. The average of low temperatures vary from 9.5 ¡ÆC in the wintertime to 23 ¡ÆC in the summertime and average high temperatures vary from 17 ¡ÆC in the wintertime to 32 ¡ÆC in the summertime while the temperature is moderate all along the coasts.
What is the Best Time of Visit Egypt?
It is known the best time to travel to Egypt is in the winter from September to April as the climate becomes a bit tropical, a warm atmosphere with a winter breeze. You will also be notified a week before your trip if the weather is unsafe or if any changes have been made.
Should I Give Tips in Egypt?
It is totally up to you, but if you choose to you can tip the servers at your restaurant 5-10% by handing it to them directly and 5 Egyptian Pounds as a general tip of anyone.
Can I Enter the Pyramids?
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How to Enjoy Egypt During Ramadan?
Ramadan is a special time of year for Muslims that should be celebrated by non-Muslims and feel the essence of the Islamic culture. You can fast with the Muslim or just observe but you are always welcome to join the celebrations and festivals.
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