Muhammad Ali Pasha was born on 4 March 1769. He was an Ottoman commander in the Ottoman Army. He became a Wali and was declared a Khedive of Egypt and Sudan with the temporal approval of the Ottomans. He is the founder of modern Egypt because of his dramatic reforms through the economic and military spheres he instituted. His dynasty ruled Upper & Lower Egypt and Sudan until the Egyptian Revolution in 1952 led by Muhammed Naguib and Gamal Abd El-Nasser. Muhammed Ali died on 2 August 1849. Here all the information you need to know about Muhammad Ali:
Muhammad Ali Pasha
Muhammad Ali Pasha Early Life
Muhammad Ali Pasha was born in an Albanian family in Kavala, Macedonia. He was the second son of a shopping merchant called Ibrahim Agha. When his father died, he was raised by his uncles and cousins. His uncle gave him the rank “Bolukbashi” because of his hard work in collecting taxes. His cousin Sarechesme Halil Agha was the one who gave Muhammad Ali Pasha the second rank of Albanian mercenaries, so he was sent to re-occupy Egypt following General Napoleon Bonaparte’s withdrawal. He married Emine Nosratli, the daughter of Ali Agha. She was a wealthy widow and his maternal cousin.
How did Muhammad Ali rule Egypt?
Muhammad Ali Pasha’s unit was sent in 1801 to re-occupy Egypt, following a French occupation, which was a big threat in Egypt. The Ottoman forces clashed with the Mamluks for power. Therefore, Muhammad Ali Pasha used his loyal Albanian troops to work with both sides and that’s how he gained power and prestige for himself. He worked very carefully to gain the support of the public. The Ulema demanded to replace wali Ahmed Khurshi Pashaha by Muhammad Ali in 1805. Ali exiled the leader Omar Makram to Damietta as he discovered his intentions to seize the throne for himself in 1809. Mohammed Ali had the ability to forestall popular opposition until he had consolidated his power.
The Mosque of Muhammad Ali
Mohammed Ali established the amazing mosque called “Muhammad Ali Mosque” between 1830 and 1848 that was dedicated to honoring his son Tuson Pasha, who died in 1816 and was buried in a tomb within the mosque. The Turkish architect, Yousif Boushnaq, designed this magnificent mosque. It was built at the beginning of the 19th century and is considered the biggest Ottoman mosque. It has decorated walls and beautiful hanging lamps on the Turkish style.
Muhammad Ali’s Bloody Mamluks Massacre
The Mamluks controlled Egypt for more than 600 years and they were a threat for Muhammad Ali Pasha while expanding their rule to the south along the Nile River to Upper Egypt. Muhammad Ali tried to eliminate the leadership of the Mamluks by making a plan and invited all leaders of Mamluks to celebrate his son, Tuson at Cairo citadel of Salah El-Din. His troops surrounded them and killed them one-by-one in 1811 AD. Then he spread his army in all the areas of the country to kill all the remaining Mamluks. And that’s how Muhammad Ali Pasha was the one who transformed Egypt into a regional power.
The Reformations of Muhammad Ali Pasha
Mohamed Ali’s goal was to separate Egypt from the Ottoman Empire and let his own dynasty to rule it. In order to do so, he had to reorganize Egyptian society, streamline the economy, train a professional bureaucracy, and build a modern military. The first thing he did was that he nationalized all iltizam lands of Egypt to secure avenue stream for Egypt. He also raised taxes for those who had landed in Egypt. Unfortunately, the taxes were high and when the farmers couldn’t pay the taxes, Mohamed Ali confiscated their properties. He focused on the production of weapons to build a modern military.
Muhammad Ali Pasha started to construct a navy through the shipyard he established in Alexandria. He expanded the agricultural lands and established an industrial base for Egypt. His industry wasn’t only based on weapons, he established a textile industry to compete for the European industries. The textile industry wasn’t successful so Mohamed Ali made use of the existence of some Europeans in Egypt and trained the Egyptians in the European skills. He did his best to train a professional military and bureaucracy so he sent promising citizens to Europe to study. Egyptian students in Europe had a big chance to learn different languages and skills.
The Law Under Muhammad Ali Pasha
Muhammad Ali wanted to have more control against the crime in Egypt. He passed his first penal legislation in 1829, in an effort to get a stronger hold over the population. He was on his way to establishing an independent state. He created a state of “Law and Order” so that Christians can become safe in Egypt and gain European influence. He established different police forces in regions in Egypt, especially in Alexandria and Cairo. Law has changed and autopsy became an important form of evidence used within the criminal law in Egypt.
The Medicine School of Women by Muhammad Ali Pasha
A new school of medicine for women was established by Antoine Clot in 1832 when Muhammad pasha allowed the establishment of such a school. The aim of such a school was the production of “Hakimas” to treat women and children. Muhammad Ali Pasha wanted a healthy army and he couldn’t do that unless all wives know about medicine to treat their husbands. This school followed the French model. When Hakimas married, they have given the title of Effendi, the rank of second lieutenant, and a monthly salary of 250 piasters.
Explore All Charming Attractions of Egypt
Egypt is full of amazing attractions such as pyramids, temples, tombs, mosques, churches, and much more. So you can visit Mohammad Ali mosque through our Egypt tour packages, or if you are in Cairo you can check our below Cairo day tours to enjoy a private tour that includes visiting Muhammad Ali mosque.
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What Should I Wear While Being in Egypt?
You should wear whatever you want. It is advised to wear something light from cotton or linen, comfortable and put on sunblock during your time in Egypt in the summer and wear comfortable footwear like a closed-toe shoe to sustain the sandy terrain.
What to Pack for Your Egypt Tour?
You should bring a brimmed hat and sunglasses if you not used to the Egyptian sun &pack everything you could ever need and put in a small bag so you could move easily between your destinations.
Are All Nile Cruises Available at Any Time?
Yes, it is available all years. as the Nile from Aswan to Luxor takes three to four days of sailing on Monday, Wednesday and Friday for the total cost of 600$ and the Nile cruise from Luxor to Aswan take four to five days in Saturday, Monday and Thursday for the coast of 650$.
Why book Trips in Egypt?
We have experience in vacation planning for more than 10 years & our staff consists of the most professional operators, guides and drivers who dedicate all of their time & effort create the perfect vacation. All of our tours are customized by Travel, Financial & Time advisors to fit your every possible need during your time in egypt. we always keep in mind that your safety & comfort are our main priority until you return home.
Is it safe to travel to Egypt?
Yes, it is absolutely safe to travel to egypt, You will feel secure in Egypt as the current atmosphere of the country is very peaceful after the government took powerful measures like restructuring the entire tourist police to include all the important and tourist attractions in Egypt and construct an entire environment dedicated for ensuring the lives of all tourists.
What are Egypt's Visa Requirements?
They are very simples, If you want to apply for a Visa On Arrival that lasts for 30 days then you should be one of the eligible countries(check the link), have a valid passport with at least 6 months remaining and pay 25$ USD entry fee in cash. As for the E-Visa for 30 days, you should have a valid passport for at least 8 months, complete the online application, pay the e-visa fee then print the e-visa to later be presented to the airport border guard. You could be one of the countries eligible for a free visa for 90 days.
What is the Weather is Like?
The temperature of Egypt ranges from 37c to 14 c, Summer in Egypt is somehow hot and winter is cool and mild but sometimes it becomes cold at night. The average of low temperatures vary from 9.5 ¡ÆC in the wintertime to 23 ¡ÆC in the summertime and average high temperatures vary from 17 ¡ÆC in the wintertime to 32 ¡ÆC in the summertime while the temperature is moderate all along the coasts.
What is the Best Time of Visit Egypt?
It is known the best time to travel to Egypt is in the winter from September to April as the climate becomes a bit tropical, a warm atmosphere with a winter breeze. You will also be notified a week before your trip if the weather is unsafe or if any changes have been made.
Should I Give Tips in Egypt?
It is totally up to you, but if you choose to you can tip the servers at your restaurant 5-10% by handing it to them directly and 5 Egyptian Pounds as a general tip of anyone.
Can I Enter the Pyramids?
Yes, you can enter the pyramids for the small fee of 20$.
How to Enjoy Egypt During Ramadan?
Ramadan is a special time of year for Muslims that should be celebrated by non-Muslims and feel the essence of the Islamic culture. You can fast with the Muslim or just observe but you are always welcome to join the celebrations and festivals.