The daily life in ancient Egypt was quite unique as they were able to find the perfect balance a society needs in order to thrive. They understood that they blessed with a very fertile land on the banks of a magical Nile, so they take it upon them to live the ultimate form of life. They believed that death was only another step to the other side where only the chosen ones were allowed to cross to the eternal continuation of the earthly life to the heavenly life in the fields of reeds. They believed that harmony and balance were the bases of the universe that’s why they encouraged the ideas of peace and happiness to be forte of their entire community.
The Social Classes in Daily Life in Ancient Egypt
The society of ancient Egypt was divided into various social classes in the shape of a pyramid based on their profession and role in the community. At the top of the pyramid is the king or Pharaoh who was believed to be the representation of the gods on earth and that’s why he and his royal family enjoyed great wealth, stature, and influence over everything. In the second level is the educated class of doctors, accountants, priests and scribes which were believed to be chosen by the god Thoth. In the third class came the working force of crafters, traders, sailors and soldiers who built the economy and protected the country. In the final level came the servants, farmers, and builders like the ones who worked in construction the great pyramids and other monuments. The jobs and positions were hereditary, based from father to son through the ages.
The Concept of Family & Marriage in Daily Life in Ancient Egypt
The construction of a family was really important and even essential during life in ancient Egypt as most of the marriages were arranged by parents and the girls were usually married at the age of 12 and the boys at the age of 15. They established a system where the girls would learn from their mother on how to be a wife and a mother while the boys would their future profession from their father to earn money and provide for his family. An unmarried man was viewed as incomplete and unbalanced and was advised to marry as soon as possible. Divorce existed in daily life in ancient Egypt but was quite rare as the Egyptians were committed to the sanctity of the family unity.
The Role of Women in Daily Life in Ancient Egypt
In ancient Egypt, women have often had the same right as a man and were treated equally to men. They had the right to own property, conduct business transactions, testify in court and even some women were able to rule Egypt like Queen Hatshepsut, Queen Cleopatra and create a glorious legacy as a female- pharaoh. They were able to achieve great success by obtaining high ranks gobs like supervisors, administrators, and priestesses. But their society never let them forget that their main responsibility was to be the caretaker of the children and the home before anything else.
The Homes and Shelters in Daily Life in Ancient Egypt
The ancient Egyptians used a fast and cheap material called adobe made of mud-bricks and dried in the sun and used to construct their temples, houses. Their houses were filled with beautiful decorations, enchanting amulets, and many ancient religious artifacts. The houses were divided into two floors one for reception and the other for private housing, the houses were able to maintain a cool temperature on the inside, it also had a flat roof which they slept on during the summer heat. The houses were built around courtyards and all the cooking was performed outside. The people of high stature like the nobles occupied a larger house three times bigger as the rest of the farmers.
The Nile River’s Function in Daily Life in Ancient Egypt
The Nile River is truly the source of life in ancient and current Egypt as it acted like the bloodstream of the entire country. The Nile fertilized the land and provide nutrition water that helps grow all what the need from wheat, barley, and papyrus which was transformed into paper, baskets and other crops. The Nile was also used to transport people, and various materials, plus acting as a line of communication between upper and lower Egypt. Due to how vital the Nile is, it was featured as a religious entity and a gift from the god Sobek who is viewed as the creator of the Nile. You can experience the Nile cruise holidays to Upper Egypt with an expert tour guide and witness the striking scenery of the land between Luxor & Aswan while boarding a Nile cruise and enjoy enchanting sneak peeks to the highlights of Pharaohs.
Foods & Drinks in Daily Life in Ancient Egypt
Food was easy to find in ancient Egypt and many crops like wheat and barley. The most popular food was bread which was considered a high source of carbohydrate and was usually seasoned with honey, herbs fruits, and sesame seeds. Their diet was mainly vegetarian as they lived on a combination of vegetables and wheat, plus their main source of protein was fish while the meat was more expensive and only found in the house of the elite because it was really hard to keep fresh under Egyptian climate. The main drink was Beer which was considered a holy drink and consumed at every meal, while wine was found only on the tables of the wealthy noblemen.
Entertainment in Daily Life in Ancient Egypt
The party in ancient Egypt never stopped as the ancient Egyptians were very engaged in every form of entertainment like hunting great beasts like crocodile and hippopotamuses, plus various forms of board games like Senet (an early form of chess), hound & jackal plus many toys in the shape of animals made especially for children. Sports in ancient Egypt held great importance and included athletics like swimming, handball, wrestling, archery, gymnastics, water jouster ( a form of Sea Battle by small boats in the Nile)and many others. Music and dancing were considered to be an art form and very common within their culture especially during their festivals and the extravagant parties filled with the finest food, drinks, dancers, and musician which was held by the nobles.
The Festivals in Daily Life in Ancient Egypt
During the history of ancient Egypt there were a number of festivals the honored a certain time like new years eve like ‘wepetRenpet” in July at the time of the annual flooding or of a religious nature like Khoiak which honored Osiris’s Death and Resurrection , each festival had a unique nature such as the god’s birthday and was held in conjunction with the lunar calendar like the feast of Hathor at Dendera, the festival of god Amun at the Karnak temple, the festival of Isis at Busiris and the festival of Bastet at Bubastis. There is also the festival that revolves around the individual birthday, funerals, achievements or a simple housewarming. The festivals were times which the ancient Egyptians indulge in every form of excess despite the fact that self-indulgence wasn’t considered appropriate.
Clothing and Fashion in Daily Life in Ancient Egypt
The clothes of ancient Egyptians were made of linen which is a light, the cool fabric is woven from cotton that’s why both men and women wore the same material in the shape of linen kilts. Most of the women dressed in plain sleeved dresses while the servants and the lower-class females were shown wearing a kilt as for the royal and nobles women they wore fitted dresses from the shoulder to the ankles, while the royal and noblemen wore shirts and blouses. The little children of ancient Egypt didn’t wear any clothes until the age of ten. Everyone in ancient Egypt was barefoot in a way to imitate the gods who didn’t seem to need any footwear, but when someone was on a long journey they would wear sandals in order to protect them from any injuries. The royal and noble class wore sandals made leather or painted wood while the lower class wore cheap sandals made of woven rushes.
The ancient Egyptians were very civilized as they took extra care of the hygiene daily on the river or in a bath at home and use a cleansing cream made of natural oil, lime, and perfume. Everyone from all ages wore makeup and cosmetics called Khol which was very popular as it protected them from the sun. The royal and nobles wore jewelry like rings and necklaces made out of gold, electrum, and silver while the lower class also wore jewelry made from simpler material for both religious and fashion reasons.
Health in Daily Life in Ancient Egypt
The religious culture of ancient Egypt heavily affected their medical condition as they used a combination of scientific techniques like diagnosis % observation and blend it with magical rituals like spells and charms. All the doctors began their training as scribes because they need to learn how to read medical texts and discover the correct illness or as they called it the right curse, they also learned a lot of religious literature works on surgery, the setting of broken bones and the treatment of diseases and illnesses. The viewed all diseases as a form of punishment from the gods for commuting a certain sin. The ancient Egyptians were able to achieve very remarkable success and progress in the field of anatomy by cutting open the human body and understanding how all the organs operate and gaining a further understanding on the afflictions and remedies of the human body. They were very skilled in the field of dentistry and cared deeply about their dental hygiene as they created the Toothbrush, breath mints and toothpaste made of eggshells, ox hooves, and ashes.
Religion in Daily Life in Ancient Egypt
The religious dogma of ancient Egypt holds their society together as they had thousands of ancient Egyptian gods & goddesses for every aspect of life. the ancient Egyptian view science as magic and only the gods can control it and reveal its secrets. they had a polytheistic society as every town and village has their own deity and each one had its own set of rituals, ceremonies, own temple and set of specific practices. They believed in life after death which led them to create the mummification process as a way to preserve the body to the afterlife. They were very spiritual and creative as they came up with many myths and theories like the ancient Egyptian creation myth, and the Ancient Egyptian afterlife, plus many urban legends like the story of Osiris & Isis. Most of all the religious facts about ancient Egypt came from the book of the dead that contained many hymns, formulas, protective amulets and spells.
The Technology in Daily Life in Ancient Egypt
The ancient Egyptians were truly natural born explorers and inventors as they created the earliest form of inventions like the first writing system hieroglyphics that was drowned to convey a certain message or a story and also they used it as a way to document their daily life, discoveries, and religious beliefs. They wrote on a sheet of paper called papyrus which they created with black ink to use in writing and painting plus it came in various colors.
They also used their profound intellect in the field of astronomy to create the lunar calendar that is based on the cycles of the moon and the Sirius star which we still use until the current day. They were the first people in existence to divide the entire year to 12 months, 365 days and 24 hours units through timekeeping device like shadow & water clocks, obelisks, and sundials. The observation of the sun, the stars, and the moon deeply affected their religion and way of life. They had a talent for geometry and architecture as it shows in the number of great pyramids and temples all across Egypt. They also had a deep knowledge of aerodynamics when they created their ships. They improved their agriculture by building the ox-drawn plow and an irrigation system using hydraulic engineering principles.
Crime & Punishment in Daily Life in Ancient Egypt
The ancient Egyptians society depended on law and order and was a law-abiding society. The pharaoh’s right hand and second in command the Vizier was responsible for maintaining order and enforcing the judgment on anyone who broke the law. The local court a.k.a Kenbet was made up from community leaders who would hear the cases and decide the innocent and the guilty. The court was held in an office building called the judgment hall that existed in the city and sometimes the court would be held in on the street or in the marketplace. During the new kingdom, there was no place for lawyers or appeals, the priests of Amun were the ones who decided the final verdict due to their presumed connection to the holy rightful gods. Major crimes like murder, rape, assault and tomb robbing were punished by incarceration, mutilation, forced labor, and even death, but for minor offenses, a fine was enough. All the convicted felons were held in the great prison of Thebes and used for manual labor in Karnak, plus the guilty faced a worse destiny in the afterlife.
The Ancient Egyptians where a head of their time and were highly civilized and sophisticated, they elevated their daily life and looked for means to improve it to a whole new level and you can witness the evidence to that on the immortal monuments such as the famous pyramids, the various fascinating temples of Luxor & Aswan through our magical Egypt tour packages.